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Reasons for Urbanization

People move to cities in search of job opportunities

Cities offer greater employment possibilities and a higher standard of living

People migrate to cities from the countryside

Traditional activities like farming need fewer workers nowadays

Negatives of City Life

Life in cities has its drawbacks

The cost of living is higher than in rural areas

Some people d not manage to find work

Housing is usually much more expensive

Homelessness and poverty are common on cities  There is a gap between rich and poor

Life in cities can be extremely stressful

There are problems like traffic congestion and crime

Cities lack a sense of community

People do not even know their neighbor

Cities are sometimes described as “concrete jungles”.

Pedestrian Areas

Pedestrian zones in city centre can improve the local environment

Banning cars encourages people to walk or cycle

Many European cities have built bicycle lanes

Dependence on cars is linked to health problems like obesity

People who walk or cycle regularly are generally healthier

Pedestrian areas are safer and more attractive for both residents and tourists


Police and Crime Prevention

The job of the polices is to catch criminals

They must also prevent crime and make communities safer

There should be an increase in the number of police officers on the streets

Police officers should be seen as part of the community

They should be involved with education and prevention

The police should be in close contact with schools

They should focus on young people who have dropped out of school.

These teenagers may become involved with gangs


Fines are used as punishment for minor crimes

If the crime is more serious, prison is the most common punishment

Some criminals pose a threat to society

They are put in prison to ensure the safety of other citizens

Negatives of Prisons

Criminals are put together

They make friends with other offenders

Many prisoners re-offend when they are released

A criminal record makes finding a job more difficult


Another aim of prisons is rehabilitation

Prisoners receive education of vocational training

Prisoners should learn personal skills and specific job skills

Punishment could make prisoners’ behavior worse

Rehabilitation aims to make them better citizens

Rehabilitated prisoners are less likely to re-offend

Capital punishment

Supporters say that capital punishment deters crime

Fear of the death penalty stops people from committing offences

The death penalty shows that crime is not tolerated

It is a form of revenge

The cost of imprisonment is avoided

The offender cannot pose a threat to others

Against Capital Punishment

Innocent people could be wrongly convicted and executed

Crime rates are not necessarily reduced

Many criminals do not think they will be caught

Capital punishment is not a good deterrent

Executing prisoners creates a violent culture and encourages revenge

We have no right to take another human life

Community service

Community service is a way to reform offenders

It could be a solution to prison overcrowding

It avoids the cost of imprisonment

It makes offenders useful in their local communities

They are required to clean streets or talk to school groups

Offenders repay their community

They avoid the negative influence that prison can have

Against community service

Community service is not a sufficient punishment

Criminals should be locked up, away from their victims

Crime in the Media

Crime is one of the main subjects of most news programs.  The mass media focus on violent and sensational crimes

This lead to fear of crime among the public

Sensational stories attract more viewers or readers

The media report crime stories in order to increase their audience


Benefits of education

Education gives people knowledge and skills

People with qualification are more likely to find work

They can earn a higher salary

They can contribute positively to society

Schools aim to teach young people moral values such as tolerance and sharing

Schools prepare children to be members of a society

Benefits of Studying Abroad

Foreign institutions may offer better courses

Many students want to attend a prestigious university

The best universities employ teachers who are experts in their fields

Qualifications gained abroad can open the door to better job opportunities

Living abroad can broaden students’ horizons

Overseas students are exposed to different cultures and customs.  They become more independent

They are responsible for cooking, cleaning and paying bills

They will learn a foreign language

Drawback of studying abroad

Living and studying abroad can be difficult

Students have problems with paperwork such as visa applications

The language barrier can be a problem

Students have to find accommodation and pay bills

Studying in a foreign language is challenging

Living alone in an unfamiliar culture can cause homesickness

Technology in Education: Advantages

Technology is a powerful tool to engage students

Technology can make lessons much more interesting

Students can do research using online resources

Students can study at their own place

Adults can take distance learning courses

Students can study whenever and wherever they want

Students also learn skills which are useful for their future jobs

For example, they learn to write reports using a word processor

Technology in Education: Disadvantages

People rely too much on computers

Young learners do not become proficient in some basic skills

They use word processors and spelling may suffer

People should be able to write a letter by hand

Technology is no substitute for a real teacher

Learners need a structured course

An experienced teacher knows what materials to choose

Computers are expensive to maintain and can be unreliable

Technology in Education: Opinion

Institutions should supplement traditional teaching with the use of technology

Technology is part of everyday life

It can enhance a teacher’s lessons

Students can use online resources to help with homework

Students must still learn to write by hand

They should still use traditional sources of information such as books

Education in Developing countries: Problems

Children often have to work from an early age

There are no schools in many areas

Families do not have access to books or computers

Literacy rates are often low

People in developing countries need knowledge and skills

Education is the key to improving the economy of these countries

Education in developing countries: solutions

Developed countries could help developing nations by providing money

They could invest in schools and technology

They could supply the funds to build schools and pay for teachers

Children need to have access to free schooling

Computer equipment could be donated

The Internet can expose students to a world of knowledge and information

Governments should make education compulsory for all children

They should encourage parents to send their children to school

Governments of developed and developing countries must work together

Higher education: Advantages (also see “benefits of education”)

There are many benefits to going to university

A degree can open the door to better employment prospects

Economies are becoming increasingly knowledge-based

Most jobs require specific knowledge and skills

Skilled workers are needed for sectors such as information technology and engineering

Repetitive manual jobs are now done by machine

Many factories have moved to developing countries

Higher education: Disadvantages

A healthy economy needs a wide range of workers

Some manual workers will always be needed

A university degree is not necessary for many service professions

Practical training is more important in some industries

In the UK, for example, there is currently a shortage of plumbers

Their services are therefore becoming more and more expensive

Advantage of Home-schooling

Some parents decide to educate their children at home

Some families live in isolated areas with poor transport

Other parents are not satisfied with local schools

Parents can respond to what their children need and how they learn best

One-to-one lessons allow much faster progress

The child can work at his or her own pace

Discipline problems are avoided by home-schooling

Disadvantages of home-schooling

Most parents do not have the time to educate their children at home

One parent would need to give up work

School subjects are normally taught by up to ten different teachers

Most parents do not have the necessary knowledge or resources

Private tutors are expensive

Children will miss out on the social experience that school offers

At school, children learn how to get on with each other

Home-schooled children may lack social skills

Schools offer a better overall educational experience

Bad behavior in schools: causes

Bad behavior is due to a lack of structure and discipline

There are too many children in some classes

Large classes are difficult to manage

May disruptive students come from an unstable family background

Other parents are too lenient and spoil their children

Some children are used to getting whatever they want

Schools can do very little if they are not supported by parents

Bad behavior in schools: solutions

Schools need a clear code of conduct

Schools need a clear set of rules about behavior

They need to create a positive working atmosphere

Teachers must have the power to punish disruptive students

Schools should remove difficult children from lessons

Schools need to work closely with parents

Discipline could be lacking at home

Parents must support the school rules

They should take responsibility for their children’s behavior


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