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The three graphs of wheat exports each show a quite different pattern between 1985 and 1990. Exports from Australia declined over the five-year period, while the Canadian market fluctuated considerably, and the European Community showed an increase.

In 1985, Australia exported about 15 millions of tonnes of wheat and the following year the number increased by one million tonnes to 16 million. After that, however, there was a gradual decline until 1989 and 1990 when it stabilised at about 11 million tonnes. Over the same period, the amount of Canadian exports varied greatly. It started at 19 million tonnes in 1985, reached a peak in 1988 of 24 million, dropped dramatically in 1989 to 14 million tonnes and then climbed back to 19 million in 1990. Seventeen million tonnes were exported from the European Community in 1985, but this decreased to 14 million tonnes in 1986 and then rose to 15 million in 1987 and 1988 before increasing once more to 20 million in 1990.


You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

Eating sweet foods produces acid in the mouth, which can cause tooth decay. (High acid levels are measured by low pH values)

Describe the information below and discuss the implications for dental health.

You should write at least 150 words.

Anyone who has visited a dentist has been told that eating excessive amounts of sweets risks harming the teeth. This is because sweets lower pH levels in the mouth to dangerous levels.

When the pH level in the mouth is kept above 5.5, acidity is such that teeth are unlikely to be in danger of decay. Sweet foods, however, cause pH in the mouth to drop for a time, and the longer pH levels remain below 5.5, the greater the opportunity for decay to occur.

By comparing fruit sugar, cane sugar and honey, which are all common ingredients of sweet foods, we find that cane sugar lowers pH levels for the longest period, thus producing the greatest risk of the three. Approximately five minutes aftfter consuming cane sugar, pH levels drop to as little as pH 3.5. They then begin to rise slowly, but do not rise above pH 5.5 until at least 30 minutes have elapsed. By contrast, fruit sugar, which causes the mouth’s acidity to fall to just above pH 4, poses a danger for a shorter period: tooth decay is unlikely 20 minutes after consumption. Honey appears an even less risky substance. Though acidity falls to about pH 4.75 within five minutes of consumption, it returns to above pH 5.5 in under fifteen minutes.

The implications, then, are that people who insist on eating sweet foods should be aware of the ingredients, and that fruit sugar or honey appear preferable to cane sugar.


The graph shows the spending on research into renewable energy of four countries from 1975 to 2000.

The line graph compares how much these four countries spent on the research of renewable energy during the period from 1975 to 2000.

In 1975, there were no countries budgeting for this research, while the spending from Switzerland, Denmark, Spain and the UK reached 2.6, 1.8, 1 and 0.5 dollars per person respectively in the year 1980.

In the following year, the figure for Switzerland nearly doubled, rising from 2.6 to over 5 dollars per person. The investment from Denmark almost leveled off from 1980 to 1995, after which it rose remarkably and arrived at 3 dollars per person in the year 2000.

When it comes to Spain, the spending dipped to 0.5 dollars in 1990, although it climbed again and ended up at 0.8 dollars per person in 2000. The investment form the UK peaked at 0.9 dollars per person in 1985, while it was the country which spent the least researching the renewable energy.

Overall, Switzerland was the country that allocated the most funds to the research of renewable energy, while the allocation from the UK was the lowest.


The line graph shows three different crimes in England and Wales in 1970-2005.

The line graph compares the number of three different kinds of crimes in England and Wales during the period from 1970 to 2005.

In 1970,the number of car theft was the highest (0.4 million), which was twice the figure for house burgling and nearly eight times the figure for street robbery. Then it increased quickly and reached one million in the year 1990, after which it soared to 1.6 million in 1995.

However, in the rest years, the crime rate of car theft declined dramatically to the 1990 figure. As to the number of house burgling, it experienced a similar trend with the figure for car theft in the first 10-year period, while the number fluctuated and then dropped slowly to 0.5 million in 2005. When it comes to the number of street robbery, it remained stable until 1990. Afterwards, there was a slight increase of 0.8 million in the following years.

All in all, car theft and house burgling are the main crimes in England and Wales, while the figure of street robbery was the lowest.


The line graphs show the percentage of people using public transport and people using private cars in five cities of Australia from 2000 to 2010.


The line graphs illustrate the changes of the percentage of the citizens using public transportation and using private cars in five different cities in Australia from 2000 to 2010.

The percentage of those who use public transportation fluctuated in all cities during these ten years, among which the proportion of Sydney occupies the leading place. The second place and third place were owned by Perth and Adelaide respectively. The lowest percentage, which was around 5%, belonged to Melbourne.

The percentage of those who chose the private cars outnumbered that of the citizens who used the public transportation. The ten years witnessed the gradual increase in all five cities, with Melbourne rising from 80% to 90%, making it the city where the private car was most popular. Although the citizens in the city of Sydney constituted the smallest proportion in private transportation, it still underwent an increase, from 20% to 25%.

In summary, private transport was more welcomed in the five cities in Australia, with only a small proportion of people choosing public transportation.

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